It has a strong antimicrobial activity on P. acnes, the major bacterium related to acne vulgaris. Significantly reduces the lipid oxidation in vivo, which is one major cause for inflammatory reactions. Significantly reduces total lesions of acne vulgaris in open human studies. Improves appearance of acne skin.
Also called vitamin B3, niacin, and nicotinic acid. Topical application of niacinamide has been shown to increase ceramide and free fatty acid levels in skin, prevent skin from losing water content, and stimulate microcirculation in the dermis.
(Sources: British Journal of Dermatology, September 2000, pages 524–531; and Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, April 2004, page 88).
There are studies that examined niacinamide’s anti-acne properties. A study that compared a gel containing 4% niacinamide with the prescription acne medicine Clindamycin found that niacinimide works just as well as the prescription, but without the risk of antibiotic resistance.
(Source: International Journal of Dermatology, June 1995, pages 434–437).
Separate clinical trials were conducted in Japan to evaluate the effect of topical 2% niacinamide. A total of 100 Japanese subjects were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison between two independent balanced groups. Fifty subjects applied the 2% niacinamide moisturizer to the face for 4 weeks and 50 subjects used a placebo moisturizer for 4 weeks, with sebum excretion rate (SER) measurements taken at baseline, week 2, and week 4. The results of the study demonstrated that the SER of the two groups was not significantly different at baseline, but the 2% niacinamide treated group demonstrated significantly lowered SER after 2 and 4 weeks of application.
(Source: Department of Dermatology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA, Research and Development, Procter& Gamble Far East Inc., Kobe, Japan, and Research and Development, Procter& Gamble Company, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Zoe Diana Draelos, Akira Matsubara & Kenneth Smiles)
Niacinamide is a helpful ingredient for addressing skin discolorations. It reduces apperance of red and brown marks vasued by acne. Topical niacinamide has an inhibitory effect on the transfer of melanosomes to skin cells, thus it interrupts the process that causes irregular pigmentation.
(Source: Experimental Dermatology, July 2005, pages 498–508).
Centella asiatica known as Gotu Kola is a medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine for hundreds of years as well as in scientifically oriented medicine. The active compounds include pentacyclic triterpenes, mainly asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic and madecassic acids. Centella asiatica is effective in improving treatment of small wounds, hypertrophic wounds as well as burns, psoriasis and scleroderma. The mechanism of action involves promoting fibroblast proliferation and increasing the synthesis of collagen and intracellular fibronectin content and also improvement of the tensile strength of newly formed skin as well as inhibiting the inflammatory phase of hypertrophic scars and keloids. Research results indicate that it can be used in the treatment of photoaging skin, cellulite and striae.
Panthenol has a good clinical track record in helping to heal a wide variety of skin damage, often as a part of a combined therapy. It appears to speed up healing of wounds and burns as well as aid in skin transplantation and scar treatment. The skin healed with the aid of Panthenol tends to be softer, more elastic and more regular. This may be due to the demonstrated ability of Panthenol to stimulate the growth of key skin cells (particularly dermal fibroblasts) and possibly remodel this skin matrix. Panthenol also improves superficial skin damage (seen in dry, rough, chafed skin) by helping regenerate/strengthen the epidermis and stratum corneum (outer skin layers) and thus improving the skin's protective barrier. Panthenol was also shown to reduce irritation/inflammation as well as improve erythema (redness), pruritis (itchiness) and other symptoms. It has a well demonstrated hydrating and moisturizing effect on the skin. It restores hydration to dry skin as well as somewhat protects normal skin from drying effects of harsh detergents.
Allantoin promotes cell regeneration in skin exposed to and weakened by environmental factors, and helps to promote and maintain the health of intact skin on the body and face. Addition of Allantoin to hand lotions and hand creams helps eliminate rough, chapped skin, and leaves hands smooth and soft. Le Van et al. have studied e.g. the action of a skin-care product containing Allantoin in a large number of women with badly damaged skin. In 90% of the women using the hand lotion daily, the symptoms were completely eliminated, and for the remaining 10 %, at least a distinct improvement was observed. Skin areas superficially damaged through shaving are also renewed by the use of aftershaves containing Allantoin. Allantoin is also highly suitable for use on the particularly sensitive skin and irritated skin. Allantoin potentiates the healing and regenerating activity of the skin.